PSY 330 - Fall 2003
Multiple Choice: Circle the letter corresponding to the single most correct answer (@ 1 point).
[NOTE: Answers to the multiple choice questions can be found at the end of this test.]
1. Express is to ___________ as interpret is to ____________ nonverbal messages.
A. encode; decode C. encode; emit
B. decode; encode D. emit; encode
2. All of the following are among the six universally recognized facial expressions reported by Ekman except
A. sadness C. anger
B. fear D. guilt
3. In an experiment discussed in the text, participants were asked to select a face with one particular emotional expression out of a sea of faces with other emotional expressions. The emotional expression that people could find the fastest was:
A. happiness C. anger
B. sadness D. fear
4. ___________ refers to a facial expression in which one part of the face registers one emotion and another part of the face registers a different emotion.
A. ambivalence display C. deception
B. dissembling D. affect blend
5. In our culture, it is the norm that we should smile when we say "Thank you." This is an example of:
A. perceptual salience C. spot light effect
B. display rule D. unrealistic optimism
6. On a visit to Australia, (then) President George Bush offended the Australians when he flashed the two-fingered "peace sign" to a crowd. This is an example of how the use of ____________ which vary from culture to culture, may lead to confusion or conflict if used outside of the user's culture.
A. emblems C. political gaffe
B. display rules D. paralanguage
7. Researchers have found that women are better than men at decoding facial expressions except when the other person is __________.
A. in a position of superior power C. lying
B. in a lower-status position D. trying to hide their emotions
8. According to Alice Eagly's social-role theory,
A. individual differences in social behavior are determined by occupation
B. people's behaviors determine their socioeconomic role
C. gender differences in social behavior are due to society's division of labor
D. people are categorized into social roles based on salient characteristics
9. The attributional perspective that addresses behaviors that occur over time, place, and different actors and targets is the
A. correspondent inference model C. perceptual salience model
B. covariation model D. fundamental attribution model
10. According to the authors, programs such as Earning by Learning, which provide children large monetary rewards for reading,
A. encourage students to value reading
B. are prohibitively expensive to implement
C. may actually reduce their enjoyment of reading
D. are effective only with younger students
11. Which of the following would be most likely to reach to touch a spot of red dye when seeing his or her reflection in a mirror?
A. a one-year-old human infant C. a cat raised in a human household
B. an adult chimpanzee D. all of the above
12. Psychologists who have studied the development of self-concept over the lifespan have found that the self-concept starts out ___________ and gradually becomes ____________ with increasing age
A. extremely positive; more realistic C. extremely negative; more positive
B. concrete; more abstract and complex D. socially focused; individually focused
13. The development of our sense of self is partly influenced by the culture in which we grow up. For example, in Western cultures people tend to have an ____________ view of the self, whereas in non-Western cultures people tend to have an _____________ view of the self
A. independent; interdependent C. intrinsic; extrinsic
B. interdependent; independent D. extrinsic; intrinsic
14. When asked to finish a sentence beginning "I am...," respondents from Asian countries are more likely to mention ___________, because they grew up in a (n) _______________ culture.
A. group membership; interdependent C. actual self; authoritarian
B. the ought self; interdependent D. the ideal self; less oppressive
15. Self-perception theory argues that when our attitudes or feelings aren't clear, we often infer them by observing
A. how other people are behaving C. our own behavior
B. our emotional reactions D. others' reactions to us
16. After his psychology class, Albert tells his professor that she is an exceptional teacher and that he thinks she made the material interesting and engaging. Assuming that he is behaving insincerely, which of the following self-presentational tactics is Albert using?
A. ingratiation C. social loafing
B. self-handicapping D. lowballing
17. Just before an exam, your friend Marc turns to you and says "Man, I'm so tired! I partied 'til four in the morning." Marc is engaging in what type of self-presentation?
A. self-handicapping C. self-promotion
B. ingratiation D. self-enhancement
18. When people act contrary to their self-perceptions as reasonable and sensible people, they experience a feeling known as ________________
A. defensive attribution C. affective ambivalence
B. low self-esteem D. cognitive dissonance
19. Anita spent two month trying to decide whether to buy an IBM computer or a Macintosh. She finally decided on a MAC. Now, Anita most likely
A. wishes she'd bought the IBM
B. is certain she made the right decision
C. still thinks IBMs and MACs are equally good computers
D. tries to convince all her friends to buy IBMs
20. Carla has just written out a check for $13,999 to pay for her new car. Although the salesperson had initially accepted her check, she is now told that there was a mistake and that the final total should really be $14,250. Carla writes another check for $251 to cover the difference so that she can drive out with her new car. Carla has just fallen prey to a questionable sales practice called:
A. "lowballing" C. the "dissonance game."
B. "bait-and-switch" D. "keep 'em guessing."
21. You have just undergone a three-week initiation process to become a member of a fraternity. During the initiation, you were made to do such things as shave your head, run naked through the cafeteria, and sing obnoxious fraternity songs during your classes. You now consider the fraternity the best thing that's ever happened to you and are convinced that your fraternity brothers are friends for life. Your attitude toward your fraternity is probably the result of
A. post-decision dissonance C. insufficient punishment
B. the overjusitification effect D. justification of effort
22. According to the principle of insufficient punishment, which of the following parental techniques should be most effective in changing a child's behavior permanently (i.e., even behavior that occurs in the absence of the parent)?
A. ignoring the child's troublesome behavior
B. threat of severe punishment
C. threat of mild punishment
D. severe punishment
23. Imagine that you have just moved into a house with four other people. One of your housemates, Tony, doesn't seem to like you all that much. If you were to make use of the Ben Franklin effect, what can you do to increase Tony's liking for you?
A. offer to do Tony's laundry
B. tell Tony that you really wish the two of you could be friends
C. ask Tony if he could give you a ride to the grocery store
D. Pretend you don't care whether Tony likes you
24. Which of the following theories posits that people will go to great lengths to confirm negative self-view?
A. self-discrepancy theory C. self-verification theory
B. self-completion D. self-affirmation theory
25. You are working out at the gym and notice that everyone is in incredibly good shape. You think to yourself, "Well, I may not be as muscular as everybody else, but at least I'm smart and have lots of good friends!" You are engaging in
A. self-verification C. self-completion
B. self-evaluation maintenance D. self-affirmation
***KEEP THIS SHEET - you may record your multiple-choice answers on it to compare with the Answer Key after the test. You will need these questions to prepare for the Final.
Write answers to these questions in your blue-book.
KEY TERMS & NAMES. Select 5. For each term, supply a
precise definition including the context and a clear example. (@ 3 points)
Display Rule Mindblindness
Williams Syndrome Equilibrium Theory
2-Factor Theory of Emotion Stereotype Attribution Bias
Deindividuation Justification of Effort
SHORT ANSWER. Select and answer 2 (@ 6 points).
1. Compare & contrast each pair by identifying one major similarity and one major difference:
A) Anne Fernald vs Antonio Damasio
B) Fritz Heider vs Leon Festinger
C) Darryl Bem vs Erving Goffman
2. List any 4 techniques of impression management and supply a clear example of each.
3. Identify any 4 different categories of nonverbal communication and supply a clear example of each.
ANSWERS TO MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS:
1. A 2.
D 3. C
4. D 5. B
6. A 7. C
8. C 9. B 10. C 11. B 12. B 13. A 14. A
15. C 16. A 17. A 18. D 19. B 20. A 21. D
22. C 23. C 24. C 25. D